Monday, November 3, 2014

Burma's Elections

(မွတ္တမ္း ျပန္ရွာခ်င္သူမ်ားအတြက္ ရည္ရြယ္တင္ထားျခင္းျဖစ္သည္)

Burmese general election, 2015

Burmese (Myanmar) general election, 2015

2010 ←October or November 2015

75% seats to the House of Representatives
and 75% seats to the House of Nationalities
Shwe Mann.jpgRemise du Prix Sakharov à Aung San Suu Kyi Strasbourg 22 octobre 2013-18.jpg
LeaderShwe MannAung San Suu Kyi
Leader since1 May 201327 September 1988
Leader's seatZeyathiriKawhmu
Last election259 (Reps) 78.48%
129 (Nats) 76.79%
Did not stand
Current seats212 (Reps)
124 (Nats)
37 (Reps)
4 (Nats)

Incumbent President
State seal of Myanmar.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Burmese general election of 2015 is scheduled to take place in last week of October or first week of November.[1][2] It will see voting take place in all the constituencies of Burma(Myanmar) excluding seats appointed by the Military, in order to appoint Members of Assembly to seats in the House of Nationalities, the upper house and House of Representatives, the lower house of the Assembly of the Union.



The ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party have started rolling out strategies for their campaign. The USDP have confirmed it will contest its winning constituencies from 2010.[3]The opposition National League for Democracy party confirmed that it will contest even if aconstitutional measure barring Aung San Suu Kyi from running for president is not amended.[4]
National Unity Party confirmed it was also reviewing its winning seats from 2010 and was considering other constituencies to challenge. The National Democratic Force said the party is prepared to challenge in up to 200 constituencies, but was yet to determine its candidates. Ethnic political groups will contest in each state based on ethnic party strongholds, although some have indicated they would consider forming an alliance as the Federal Union Party.
As of December 2013, 63 political parties are registered to take part in 2015.[3]

Cancellation of by-elections[edit]

On 7 September 2014, Union Election Commission cancelled the by-election because the period for campaigning would take place too close to that of the general elections in 2015 and because the results would not have any political significance.[5][6]

Possible candidates[edit]

President Thein Sein will probably step aside when his term ends following elections in 2015. Shwe Mann, the former No. 3 in the junta who is now speaker of House of Representatives, is the most likely figure to take the mantle from Thein Sein.[7] Aung San Suu Kyi has reiterated her desire to become Burma's next president but constitutional changes need to take place before she would be allowed to run.[8]


Burmese by-elections, 2012

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Burmese (Myanmar) by-election, 2012

2010 ←1 April 2012→ 2014

40 (of the 440) seats to the Pyithu Hluttaw (House of Representatives)
and 6 (of the 224) seats to the Amyotha Hluttaw (House of Nationalities)
First partySecond partyThird party
TheinSeinASEAN.jpgAung San Suu Kyi 17 November 2011.jpgSNDP
LeaderThein SeinAung San Suu KyiSai Ai Pao
Leader since2 June 201027 September 19888 April 2010
Leader's seat(not a candidate)Kawhmu (Pyithu)(not a candidate)
Last election259 (Pyithu)
129 (Amyotha)
Did not contest[1]18 (Pyithu)
3 (Amyotha)
Seats after212 (Pyithu)
124 (Amyotha)
37 (Pyithu)
4 (Amyotha)
18 (Pyithu)
4 (Amyotha)
Seat changeDecrease 37 (Pyithu)
Decrease 5 (Amyotha)
Increase 37 (Pyithu)
Increase 4 (Amyotha)
Steady (Pyithu)
Increase 1 (Amyotha)

A woman places her ballot into thePyithu Hluttaw representative election box in the April by-elections.
The 2012 Burmese by-elections were held on 1 April 2012.[2] The elections were held to fill 46 vacant parliamentary seats.[3][4]
The main opposition party National League for Democracy was re-registered for the by-elections on 13 December 2011 as part of the reforms in Burma since 2010. NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyiran in the seat of Kawhmu,[5] which she won and her party won in 43 of the 44 seats they contested (out of 46).[6][7]

Election observers[edit]

In February 2012, President Thein Sein remarked that the government would "seriously consider" allowing Southeast Asian observers from the Association of South East Asian Nations to observe the election.[8] The Burmese government confirmed that it had requested for ASEAN election observers to arrive on 28 March, five days before the election.[9] Canada, United States, European Union, China, andNorth Korea, as well as ASEAN dialogue partners (India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, Russia and Australia), were also invited to observe the election, although it remained unclear the degree of access these international observers would have.[10][11] The United States sent two election observers and three journalists.[12]
On 13 March 2012, the Union Election Commission, approved political party monitors to monitor polling stations during the election.[13] In the previous election, onlyUnion Solidarity and Development Party monitors had been allowed to observe the elections and ballot counts.[13] A civilian-led monitoring group, including members of the 88 Generation Students Group, will also be scrutinizing election irregularities.[14]

Pre-election controversies[edit]

Aung Din of the US Campaign for Burma has said that the Burmese government is exploiting the elections to have Western sanctions lifted as quickly as possible, since a free and transparent election has been one of the conditions set by the European Union and American governments.[10] Moreover, the National League for Democracy has pointed out irregularities in voter lists and rule violations by local election committees.[16] On 21 March 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was quoted as saying "Fraud and rule violations are continuing and we can even say they are increasing."[16]
With regard to the invitations of international election observers, a US State Department spokesperson said that the Burmese government fell short of expectations to accommodate observers during the entirety of the campaign season (as typically done), which is nearing the end, as a select number of observers were allowed only to observe the election:[17][18]
Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL), a Bangkok-based election monitoring organization, has publicly called the election observations inadequate, failing to meet international standards, being too restrictive (only two observers are allowed per government, or five for ASEAN nations), and coming too late (invitations were sent less than two weeks before the election date), all of which make it logistically impossible to monitor all 48 polling stations.[19] On 20 March 2012, Somsri Hananuntasuk, executive director of ANFREL, was deported from Yangon, purportedly for entering the country on a tourist visa.[20]
On 23 March 2012, the three by-elections in Kachin State, namely in the constituencies of MogaungHpakant and Bhamo Townships, were postponed due to the security situation there.[21][22]
Two days before the by-elections, at press conference, Suu Kyi remarked that the voter irregularities were "beyond what is acceptable for democratic elections," said she did not consider the campaign "genuinely free and fair" and referred to acts of intimidation (such as stone-throwing incidents and vandalism) toward party members.[23][24] On 1 April, the opposition National League for Democracy alleged irregularities, claiming that ballot sheets had been tampered to allow the election commission to cancel the vote for Suu Kyi's party.[25]
Two Australian MPs (Janelle Saffin and Mathias Cormann), who were selected to observe the by-elections as part of Australia's monitoring team, were denied visas to enter the country.[26]


Much of the international reaction on the by-elections has revolved around the sanctions imposed by Western countries (including the United States, Australia, and the European Union). President Thein Sein and the Burmese government have been eager to work with Aung San Suu Kyi in order to remove these measures.[27]
President Thein Sein remarked that the by-elections were conducted "in a very successful manner."[10]
The Union Solidarity and Development Party has said it will lodge official complaints to the Union Election Commission on poll irregularities, voter intimidation, and purported campaign incidents that involved National League for Democracy members and supporters.[28] The National League for Democracy has also sent an official complaint to the commission, regarding ballots that had been tampered with wax.[29]
In response to the by-elections, a Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman said:[30]
ASEAN leaders, including those from Cambodia, Malaysia, and Indonesia, have called for the immediate removal of sanctions.[31] Singapore's Prime Minister said the following: "President Thein Sein has been much bolder than many observers have expected. ASEAN is happy that Myanmar has been able to take these steps forward."[32] Australia's foreign minister, Bob Carr, said the Australian government was planning to loosen sanctions, but not abolish them altogether.[33]
US Senator John McCain, who had met with Aung San Suu Kyi in January 2012, said:[34][35]
On 4 April 2012, the Obama administration announced that it would nominate an ambassador to the country and ease some travel and finance restrictions, without specifying a time table.[36] Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said of the elections:[37]
To normalize diplomatic relations between the countries, she also said that following the nomination of an ambassador, the US would establish USAID mission in Burma, ease restrictions on export of finance services and developmental assistance and facilitate travel for some government officials, although targeted sanctions toward "individuals and institutions that remain on the wrong side of these historic reform efforts" would remain in place.[37] A few sanctions (in the financial, agriculture, tourism and telecommunications sectors), are directly controlled by the executive branch, but most of the imposed sanctions were legislated by Congress, and will take a lengthy process to remove.[38] On 6 April 2012, the Obama administration nominated Derek Mitchell, who is currently the American special envoy to Burma, as United States Ambassador to Burma.[39]
The European Union, which has already eased some sanctions and travel restrictions (including on Thein Sein), will review travel bans and asset freezes on individuals tied to the previous ruling junta, the State Peace and Development Council on 23 April 2012.[40] UK Foreign Secretary William Hague suggested that easing of restrictions would be contingent on the release of political prisoners and further progress.[41]
Other scholars have noted that the by-elections, which were a relatively minor event, given the number of seats at stake, are not as defining and important as other steps toward national reconciliation.[42] Some have called removal of sanctions premature, while others have considered sanctions ineffective in the reform process.[42]


State seal of Myanmar.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of


House of Nationalities (Amyotha Hluttaw) by-elections, 2012
PartySeatsGainsLossesNet gain/lossSeats %Votes %Votes+/−

House of Representatives (Pyithu Hluttaw) by-elections, 2012
PartySeatsGainsLossesNet gain/lossSeats %Votes %Votes+/−

House of Nationalities (Amyotha Hluttaw)[edit]

Ayeyarwady Region[edit]

Pyapon and Dedaye Townships make up Constituency № 10.
Ayeyarwady Region's Constituency № 10 by-election, 2012
NLDThein Swe'%
USDPAye Kyaing %
NUPMahn Thein Hla %

Bago Region[edit]

Oktwin and Htantabin Townships make up Constituency № 7.
Bago Region's Constituency № 7 by-election, 2012
NLDMin Oo'%
USDPThan Than Nwe %

Magway Region[edit]

Magway Region's Constituency № 4 (Taungdwingyi Township) by-election, 2012
NLDAung Kyi Nyunt'%
USDPMaung Maung Win %
NUPMaung Win (Aung Win) %
UPPAung Than Tin %

Sagaing Region[edit]

KanbaluKyunhlaYe-U and Taze Townships make up Constituency № 3.
Sagaing Region's Constituency № 3 by-election, 2012
NLDMyint Naing'%
USDPTin Maung Win %
NUPBo Myint Aung %
SNDPSai Sam Min %
BanmaukKawlinWuntho and Pinlebu Townships make up Constituency № 7.
Sagaing Region's Constituency № 7 by-election, 2012
USDPTin Mya'%
NLDSaw Hlaing (disqualified) %
NUPChit Han %
SNDPMar Kyin %

Shan State[edit]

LashioTangyanMongyaiHsenwi and Kunlong Townships make up Constituency № 3.
Shan State's Constituency № 3 by-election, 2012
SNDPSai Sam Min47,22629.1%
NLDSai Myint Maung45,70028.1%
USDPNang Keng Phawng Tip45,22027.8%
KDUPLuo Xingguang (Law Shin Kwan)17,89411.0%
LNDPYaw Thup6,3603.9%

House of Representatives (Pyithu Hluttaw)[edit]

Ayeyarwady Region[edit]

Maubin Township by-election, 2012
NLDSein Win Han (Sein Win)'%
USDPMyo Thant Tin %
NUPMaung Maung Thin %
NDFKhin Su Su Aung %
MPPThein Shwe %
Myanaung Township by-election, 2012
NLDKyaw Myint'%
USDPThan Htut %
NUPWin Hlaing %
Myaungmya Township by-election, 2012
NLDMahn Johnny'%
USDPPhyo Ko Ko Tint San %
NDFAung Myo Hlaing %
Pathein Township by-election, 2012
NLDWin Myint'%
USDPAung Tin Myint %
NDFTin Win %
Wakema Township by-election, 2012
NLDMyint Myint San'%
USDPHtun Aung Kyaw %
NUPThan Aung %

Bago Region[edit]

Htantabin Township by-election, 2012
NLDSein Htun'%
USDPKyaw Kyaw Oo %
NUPTin Win %
UPPThet Oo %
Letpadan Township by-election, 2012
NLDKyaw Min'%
USDPAung Thein %
NUPWin Hlaing %
NDFNan Kyu Than Win %
Taungoo Township by-election, 2012
NLDAung Soe Myint'%
USDPWai Wai Tha %
NDFWin Tun %
Thanatpin Township by-election, 2012
NLDMyint Oo'%
USDPSein Htoo %
NUPThan Hlaing %

Mandalay Region[edit]

Kyaukpadaung Township by-election, 2012
NLDZaw Myint Maung'%
USDPAung Win Kyi %
Maha Aungmye Township by-election, 2012[43]
NLDOhn Kyaing87,59889.54%
USDPThan Htun6,7857.74%
NUPTun Kyi %
NDFHla Ko %
IndependentKyaw Kyaw %
IndependentNyunt Oo %
IndependentSein Hla %
Meiktila Township by-election, 2012
NLDWin Htein'%
USDPHla Myint %
UMFNPWin Zan %
IndependentMyint Myint Aye %
Natogyi Township by-election, 2012
NLDPaw Khin'%
USDPSoe Naing Win %
NUPAung Than %
Pyinoolwin Township by-election, 2012
NLDKyaw Thiha'%
USDPKhin Maung Win %
Tada-U Township by-election, 2012
NLDKhin Thanda'%
USDPAung Mon %
NDFNan Htaik Zaw %
UPPSan Htun %

Magway Region[edit]

Magway Township by-election, 2012
NLDMyint Thein'%
USDPAung Thein Kyaw %
NUPHla Myint %
NDFKyaw Sein Han %
UMFNPKyaw Swa Soe %
Myaing Township by-election, 2012
NLDMyint Aung'%
USDPKyaw Myint Than %
NUPWin Hlaing %
Pakokku Township by-election, 2012
NLDPaik Ko'%
USDPKyaw Tint %
Pwintbyu Township by-election, 2012
NLDAung Myo Nyo'%
USDPTint Lwin %
NUPTint Lwin %
Yezagyo Township by-election, 2012
NLDTin Htay Aung'%
USDPBo Win %
IndependentHan Shin Win %

Mon State[edit]

Mawlamyine Township by-election, 2012
NLDKhin Htay Kywe'%
USDPTin Soe Moe Naing %
NUPAung Than Oo %
ARDPMyint Myint Wai %

Naypyidaw Union Territory[edit]

Dekkhinathiri Township by-election, 2012[44]
NLDNaing Ngan Lin7,681%
USDPMaung Shein %
Ottarathiri Township by-election, 2012
NLDMin Thu'%
USDPHla Thein Swe %
NUPKyi Myint %
Pobbathiri Township by-election, 2012
NLDZayar Thaw (Phyo Zeyar Thaw)'%
USDPTha Htay %
IndependentLwin Myint Than %
Zabuthiri Township by-election, 2012
NLDSanda Min (Shwee)'%
USDPWin Htay %

Sagaing Region[edit]

Mingin Township by-election, 2012
NLDKhin Hmway Lwin27,98956.43%
USDPSan Win19,77939.88%
NUPHtay Aung1,8283.69%
Pale Township by-election, 2012
NLDKhin San Hlaing43,94668.49%
USDPHtay Naing20,13331.38%
HADEPHein Htet Aung8311.29%
Sagaing Township by-election, 2012
NLDKhin Maung Thein94,70375.98%
USDPSoe Naing29,93224.02%
NLD hold

Shan State[edit]

Kalaw Township by-election, 2012
NLDDaw Than Ngwe'%
USDPMya Win %
NUPKhin Maung Hla %
SNDPSao Tha Oo %
PNOKhun Than Maung %

Taninthayi Region[edit]

Launglon Township by-election, 2012
NLDAung Soe'%
USDPSein Maung %
Kyunsu Township by-election, 2012
NLDTin Tin Yi'%
USDPChit Than %

Yangon Region[edit]

Dagon Seikkan Township by-election, 2012[45]
NLDMyo Aung36,126%
USDPAung Win %
NUPWin Myint %
NDFKyee Myint %
NNDPWin Shwe %
NLD gain from USDP
Hlegu Township by-election, 2012
NLDPhyo Min Thein'%
USDPAung Myat Thu %
NLD gain from USDP
Kawhmu Township by-election, 2012[46]
NLDAung San Suu Kyi55,90285.38%
USDPSoe Min9,17214.10%
UPPTin Yi3970.61%
NLD gain from USDP
Mayangon Township by-election, 2012[47]
NLDMay Win Myint60,21677.5%
USDPYe Htut14,475 %
NDFKhin Phyu Phyu Nyein1,162 %
NNDPYe Min Thein (Yatha)414 %
IndependentKhin Hlaing (Zawtika) %
MNCHayma Htay149 %
NLD gain from USDP
Mingala Taungnyunt Township by-election, 2012
NLDPhyu Phyu Thin'%
USDPLei Lei Aye %
NUPSanda Myint (disqualified) %
NNDPPhone Myint %
DPThu Wai %
MNCKaung Myint Htut %
NLD gain from USDP
Thongwa Township by-election, 2012
NLDSu Su Lwin'%
USDPAung Kyaw Min %
NDFKyi Than %
NLD gain from USDP

Regional Parliaments[edit]

Bago Region Hluttaw's Kawa Township № 2 by-election, 2012
NLDMyo Khaing'%
USDPAye Win %
NUPKyi Lwin %
Ayeyarwady Region Hluttaw's Yekyi Township № 2 by-election, 2012
NLDHla Myat Thway'%
USDPTin Soe %
NUPWin Kyi %


Burmese general election, 2010

From Wikipedia, the free 
Burmese (Myanma) general election, 2010

1990 ←7 November 2010→ 2015

330 (of the 440) seats to the Pyithu Hluttaw
and 168 (of the 224) seats to the Amyotha Hluttaw
First partySecond party
LeaderThein SeinTun Yi
Leader's seatZabuthiri (Pyithu)(not a candidate)
Seats won129 (Amyotha)
259 (Pyithu)
5 (Amyotha)
12 (Pyithu)
Seat changeIncrease129 (Amyotha)
Increase259 (Pyithu)
Increase5 (Amyotha)
Increase12 (Pyithu)
Percentage76.79% (Amyotha)
78.48% (Pyithu)
2.98% (Amyotha)
3.64% (Pyithu)

Third partyFourth party
LeaderKhin Maung SweSai Ai Pao
Leader's seat(not a candidate)(not a candidate)
Seats won4 (Amyotha)
12 (Pyithu)
3 (Amyotha)
18 (Pyithu)
Seat changeIncrease4 (Amyotha)
Increase12 (Pyithu)
Increase3 (Amyotha)
Increase18 (Pyithu)
Percentage2.38% (Amyotha)
3.64% (Pyithu)
1.78% (Amyotha)
5.45% (Pyithu)

Prime Minister before election
State seal of Myanmar.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
general election was held in Burma (officially Myanmar) on 7 November 2010, in accordance with the newconstitution which was approved in a referendum held in May 2008. The date of the election, 7 November, was announced by the SPDC on 13 August.[2]
The general election forms the fifth step of the seven-step "roadmap to democracy" proposed by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) in 2003,[3][4] the sixth and seventh steps being the convening of elected representatives and the building of a modern, democratic nation, respectively.[5] However, the National League for Democracy boycotted the election.
The Union Solidarity and Development Party declared victory, after at least two opposition parties conceded. The United Nations has expressed concern about the fairness of the election[6] and Western countries have dismissed them as fraudulent.[7]



Article 59F of the new constitution bans from the Presidency (not public office in general) people who are married to citizens of states other than Myanmar. Some commentators claim that this means Aung San Suu Kyiwill be unable to contest the election,[8][9] but since her husband is deceased, she would not appear to be barred on this basis.[10] The United Nations, members of ASEAN and Western nations have insisted that the elections will not be credible without the participation of Suu Kyi.[11][12][13]
The National League for Democracy (NLD) had set a number of conditions for participating in the poll, including changes to the constitution to reduce the army's influence, international supervision for free and fair polls, and freeing all political prisoners including Suu Kyi.[14] Senior General Than Shwe, leader of the ruling military junta, has pledged to release political prisoners in an amnesty before the election, though he has not stated when this would occur.[15] On 11 August 2009, Suu Kyi was sentenced to imprisonment for three years with hard labour over a trespass incident. This sentence was commuted by the military rulers to further house arrest of eighteen months.[16] The NLD later announced they would not take part in the election due to the election laws.[17]
Key ministries including justice, defence and the interior will remain under the control of the military and under the 2008 constitution, a quarter of the 440 parliament seats will be reserved for the military officials.[18] People holding military positions are not permitted to contest the election;[19] as such, 20 members of the junta, including Prime Minister Thein Sein, retired from their posts to participate in the election.[20]

New election laws[edit]

The first of five election laws was announced in March 2010, concerning the creation of an election commission.[21] TheUnion Election Commission Law states that the military government will appoint all members of the commission and have the final say over the election results. Members of the commission must be "an eminent person, to have integrity and experience, to be loyal to the state and its citizens".[22] A 17-member election commission was later named, headed by a former military officer.[23]
The second law bans anyone currently serving a prison term from belonging to a political party, and therefore over 2,000political prisoners will not be able to participate, possibly including Aung San Suu Kyi (depending on whether her house arrest is deemed to fall under the definition of "serving a prison term").[24][25] The Political Parties Registration Law also bars members of religious orders, members of insurgent groups 'as defined by the state' and foreigners from joining political parties.[26] This separation of Buddhism and politics is a long-standing feature of Burmese politics, dating back to before independence, and was incorporated in the 1947 independence Constitution at the request of the monkhood.[27]
The other laws stipulate that anyone currently serving a prison term is barred from running or voting in the elections for the upper and lower houses.[28] A 224-member House of Nationalities will have 168 elected candidates and 56 nominated by the military chief, while the 440-member House of Representatives will have 330 elected civilians and 110 military representatives.[28] At the same time, the results of the 1990 elections were annulled as they did not comply with the new election laws.[29]
The new laws have been described as a "farce" by the Philippines[30] and a "mockery" by the United States.[31]


The final results were announced by the Myanmar Union Election Commission on 17 November 2010.[32][33][34][35]

Results for the Amyotha Hluttaw[edit]

168 of the 224 seats in the Amyotha Hluttaw (House of Nationalities) were up for election. The remaining 56 seats (25%) were not elected, and instead reserved for military appointees (taken from Defense Services personnel), technically called Army Representatives (AR).
Amyotha Hluttaw elections, 2010
PartySeatsNet Gain/LossSeats %Votes %Votes+/−

Results for the Pyithu Hluttaw[edit]

330 of the 440 seats in the Pyithu Hluttaw (House of Representatives) were up for election. The remaining 110 seats (25%) were not elected, and instead reserved for military appointees (taken from Defense Services personnel), technically called Army Representatives (AR).
Pyithu Hluttaw elections, 2010
PartySeatsNet Gain/LossSeats %Votes %Votes+/−

Political parties[edit]

Parties are required to have at least 1,000 members to participate in the election and had to register by 6 June. 40 parties have been approved by the Electoral Commission to contest the elections,[37] some of which are linked to ethnic minorities.[38]
The National League for Democracy, which overwhelmingly won the previous 1990 elections but were never allowed to take power, decided not to participate. Nonetheless, some senior members have formed the National Democratic Force to contest the elections, claiming that a boycott would play into the hands of the government.[38]
The government has established the Union Solidarity and Development Party, the successor to the mass organization Union Solidarity and Development Association, which claims to have around half the population as members. The National Unity Party, which contested the 1990 election as the main pro-government party and won 10 seats, has also registered to run. Reuters estimates that six parties in total are allied to the government.[38]
The new Democratic Party, established by Mya Than Than Nu, the daughter of former Prime Minister of BurmaU Nu and Nay Ye Ba Swe, the daughter of former Prime Minister Ba Swe, is aiming to take part in the election.[39][40] Mya Than Than Nu will run as General Secretary of the party.[41] Media coverage of the party has been banned by the military government.[42]
Another new party is being formed comprising members of a ceasefire group and a party that won seats in the 1990 elections. Five former members of the New Mon State Party (NMSP) and five members of Mon National Democratic Front (MNDF) together with five other Mon elites, who make up the new party, founded a 15-member committee and later announced that they are not going to participate in the upcoming election.[43]
The Shan Nationalities League for Democracy, a Shan political party that came second in the 1990 election, is participating in the election as the Shan Nationalities Democratic Party.[44][45]
The SPDC has not answered opposition calls to amend the 2008 constitution or state clearly how the electoral process will be managed and the terms that new political parties can organise.[46] In a speech to military retirees, Than Shwe said that the transition to a parliamentary system meant various parties with different opinions would appear, but he warned that the new parties should "avoid anything that leads to harming state interests".[47]
The constituencies available for contesting are 330 civilian seats in the House of Representatives (out of 440) and 168 civilian seats in the House of Nationalities (out of 224).[48] The remaining seats are designated for military officials and to be selected by the military chief.
During an East Asian summit in Vietnam, Foreign Minister Nyan Win confirmed Than Shwe would not be running in the election.[49]

Contesting political parties[edit]

  1. Mro or Khami National Solidarity Organization (MKNSO)
  2. National Unity Party (NUP)
  3. Lahu National Development Party (LNDP)
  4. Kokang Democracy and Unity Party (KDUP)
  5. Pa-Oh National Organisation (PNO)
  6. Democratic Party (Burma) (DPM)
  7. Kayan National Party (KNP)
  8. Rakhine State National Force of Myanmar (RSNF)
  9. Kayin People's Party (KPP)
  10. Wa National Unity Party (WNUP)
  11. Union of Karen/Kayin League (UKL)
  12. Taaung (Palaung) National Party (TPNP)
  13. All Mon Region Democracy Party (AMRDP)
  14. Democracy and Peace Party (DPP)
  15. Shan Nationalities Democratic Party (SNDP)
  16. United Democratic Party (UnitedDP)
  17. 888 Generation Student Youths (Union of Myanmar, 8GSY)
  18. Union of Myanmar Federation of National Politics (UMNPF)
  19. National Political Alliances League (NPAL)
  20. Democratic Party for Myanmar New Society (DPMNS)
  21. Chin National Party (CNP)
  22. Wuntharnu NLD (Union of Myanmar, WNLD)
  23. Modern People Party (MPP)
  24. Union Democratic Party (UnionDP)
  25. Peace and Diversity Party (PDP)
  26. Chin Progressive Party (CPP)
  27. Inn National Progressive Party (INPP)
  28. Rakhine Nationalities Development Party (RNDP)
  29. Wa Democratic Party (WDP)
  30. Phalon-Sawaw Democratic Party (PSDP)
  31. National Democratic Party for Development (NDPD)
  32. Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP)
  33. Ethnic National Development Party (ENDP)
  34. Myanmar Democracy Congress (MDC)
  35. Mro National Party (MNP)
  36. Kaman National Progressive Party (KNPP)
  37. Khami National Development Party (KNDP)
  38. National Democratic Force (NDF)
  39. Regional Development Party (Pyay, RDPP)
  40. Unity and Democracy Party of Kachin State (UDPKS)


Campaigning was low-key for the first election in 20 years.[50]


Cancelled election[edit]

The election has been cancelled[clarification needed] in parts of Mon State (4.08% of village-tracts), Shan State (10.69%), Kayah State (11.93%), Kachin State(16.60%), and Kayin State (47.25%).[51] The only unaffected state is Chin State.


There have been concerns from aid agencies that the upcoming election could see a growing number of refugees fleeing to Thailand and China, due to alleged government repression, poverty and low-level ethnic conflict.[52] Ceasefires between the military government and ethnic groups were also deteriorating.[53]
In the run up to the election, there were several bomb blasts in Burma. A bomb attack on the Burmese New Year killed at least nine people in Yangon and injured many others, including the regional commander of the Burmese Army,[54][55] while a series of explosions were reported at a hydroelectric project being jointly built by a Chinese company in the north of the country, the latter thought to be the work of anti-government groups.[56][57]

International response[edit]

The United Nations has expressed concern about the fairness of the election[6] and United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon expressed "grave concern" that Aung San Suu Kyi would not be released before the election and thus it would "lack credibility." He accused the government of being "slow and incomplete" to meet political commitments, and said it was "deeply frustrating" that the government would not hold talks with the "international community."[58]
The Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman, Jiang Yu, commented on the election during Than Shwe's visit to China. "The international community can provide constructive help [for the elections] and refrain from any negative impact on the domestic political process of Myanmar and on regional peace and stability."[59]
The following day, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton spoke to the US Senate Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on State and Foreign Affairs where she mentioned that the trial against Aung San Suu Kyi was allegedly "baseless charges." She also added that the government was "continuing resistance to a free and open electoral process. If they stay on the track they're on, their elections in 2010 will be totally illegitimate and without any meaning in the international community." She admitted that "We are absolutely committed to trying to come up with an approach that might influence the regime. We are going to try to do our best to influence them to see that this repressive regime is not one that we should continue to support, and hopefully get a greater international base to take action against them." She claimed to have support from other countries, "I have been heartened by the response that we have received. I have spoken to a number of the foreign secretaries of ASEAN countries, who've issued strong statements." She added that she was working to get more support in the United Nations.[60]
UK Foreign Minister William Hague said that "holding flawed elections does not represent change."[7]


Burma barred foreign observers and the international media from the election. The election commission chief, Thein Soe, did add, however, that diplomats and representatives from UN organisations in the country would be allowed to observe the election. He justified the decision saying "We are holding the election for this country. It's not for other countries ... We will have credibility after holding the election in front of all the people."[61]


The election was held amid tight security.[62] Initial reports pointed to a light turnout across the country, possibly as low as 20% in some areas, and the possibility of irregularities.[63][64] The Guardian reported that independent local observers were reporting "widespread voter intimidation and bribery" in the election.[63]
The Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) took 80% of the seats that were up for election. The two largest opposition parties, the National Democratic Front and the Democratic Party (Burma) conceded defeat, however, along with four other opposition parties, filed formal complaints about fraud with the election commission.[65]
On November 11, state radio announced the results for 147 constituencies in the Lower House, with the USDP winning 133. The USDP won 81 of 86 races newly announced for the Upper House.[clarification needed]
The new and previously announced results show the USDP gained majorities in both houses of parliament: 190 out of the 219 (86%) seats announced for the 330-seat lower house, and 95 out of 107 (88%) seats announced for the 168-seat upper house.[66]


Than Nyein, the chairman of the National Democratic Force, claimed the election was marred by irregularities. "We have our evidence. Some candidates complained ... because there was vote cheating." Khin Maung Swe, the leader of the opposition National Democratic Force alleged: "We took the lead at the beginning but the USDP later came up with so-called advance votes and that changed the results completely, so we lost."
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon claimed voting conditions had been "insufficiently inclusive, participatory and transparent."[67]
The People's Republic of China's Foreign Ministry said the election was "a critical step for Myanmar in implementing the seven-step road map in the transition to an elected government, and thus is welcome."[68]
India was conspicuously silent with segments of the Indian media questioning whether principle gave way to expediency.[69]
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov welcomed the vote and characterized it as a "step forward in the democratisation of Burmese society."[65]
During a speech to the Indian parliament, US President Barack Obama said of the election that "When peaceful democratic movements are suppressed – as in Burma – then the democracies of the world cannot remain silent ... It is unacceptable to steal an election as the regime in Burma has done again for the world to see."[70]
Edwin Lacierda, the spokesperson of Philippine President Benigno Aquino III, said in a press conference at Malacañan Palace that " [We] express our disappointment towards the actions done by the Burmese government towards the NLD, and also with regards to such a farce-like elections which just appeared to be a display."


At the time of the election Aljazeera argued that the election marginalized Aung San Suu Kyi. It asked "How much power and reach would she still have to rally her followers barely a week after the south-east Asian nation's first general election in two decades?" One such reason was because the NLD's boycott may have failed if it does not play the right cards in dealing with at least a semblance of an elected opposition in a "semi-legitimate" parliament. Pending her release from jail, the political atmosphere would have changed because of a new military leadership that may not be as "cosmopolitan" and "practical" in dealing both with her and external players. The British ambassador to Myanmar, Andrew Heyn, also said: "What they the junta do when Suu Kyi is released will send a message. She is well informed and committed and wants to stay involved."[71]


The following day clashes erupted between the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) and government forces in Myawaddy by the Thai border.[72] The fighting spilled over to the town of Three Pagodas Pass with reports that the DKBA had seized the town from the military. According to some reports, the DKBA planned the action in the towns of Myawaddy and Three Pagodas Pass to take advantage of the deployment of the military for election monitoring. Many voters in the area, fearing an attack, stayed away from the polls.[73]
Opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi was released from house arrest on November 13,[74] despite a court ruling quashing her release.[75] She then said there were no regrets over her party's boycott of the election. In order to have change, she said, "The people have to want it, and they have to be united."[76]
Suu Kyi and her party participated and won seats in the subsequent 2012 by-elections. The next Burmese general election is scheduled to be held in 2015.[77]


Burmese general election, 1990

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia
Burmese (Myanma) general election, 1990

1960 ←27 May 1990→ 2010

All 492 seats to the Burmese Parliament
First partySecond partyThird party
Aung San Suu Kyi 17 November 2011.jpg
LeaderAung San Suu KyiU Tha GyawKhun Htun Oo
Seats before000
Seats won392 (Pyithu)10 (Pyithu)23 (Pyithu)
Seat changeIncrease 392 (Pyithu)Increase 10 (Pyithu)Increase 23 (Pyithu)
Popular vote7,943,6222,805,559222,821

Prime Minister before election
Prime Minister-designate
State seal of Myanmar.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
General elections were held in Burma on 27 May 1990, the first multi-party elections since 1960, after which the country had been ruled by a military dictatorship. The elections were not meant to form a parliamentary government, but rather to form a parliament sized constitutional committee to draft a new constitution.[1]
The elections were won convincingly by Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD), who took 392 of the 492 seats. However, the military junta refused to recognize the results, and ruled the country as the State Peace and Development Council until 2011. Voter turnout was 72.6%.[2]


The aftermath of the uprising in 1988 and the rise of leader Aung San Suu Kyi placed worldwide media attention on the political situation in Burma.[3] In September 1988, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC, the predecessor to the State Peace and Development Council), in its Declaration No. 1, had set four goals for the country: to maintain law and order, improve transportation, improve the humanitarian situation and hold multi-party elections.[4] It also stated that the military would not "cling to power for long".[4] Suu Kyi had been calling for dialogue between the SLORC and the citizens of Burma.[5] In May 1989, the government reopened universities that had been involved in the uprising the previous year. At the same time, the government conceded and a date for the election was set for May 1990 with political parties registering for the election immediately.[6] The date, 27 May 1990, was chosen for its auspicious nature surrounding the number 9; 27 May (2+7=9), and on the fourth Sunday of the fifth month (4+5=9).[7]

Parties and campaigning[edit]

93 political parties presented a total of 2,297 candidates to contest the 492 constituencies, with at least 2 candidates per constituency.[8] Of the 93, 19 different ethnic parties also took part in the election.[9] The National Unity Party (NUP) was favoured by the party to win.[8] Suu Kyi, a popular opposition figure, ran against General Ne Win's largely disliked associate, Sein Lein.[10] The symbol for the NUP was a sheaf of rice stalks, and the NLD's was a straw hat.[11] Some people took to wearing rice stalks around their bare feet, a grave insult in a Buddhist country.[11]
Although election campaigning was underway, the government placed restrictions on opposition politicians. U Aung Gyi, a former member of the junta, was expected to lead a weak coalition that would not challenge the interests of the army. He was imprisoned in 1988 for his outspoken views against the regime, but criticised Suu Kyi for being a "radical manipulated by Communists".[11] Former Prime Minister U Nu remained under house arrest during the election process,[12] as was Suu Kyi since 20 July 1989, without trial.[13] Throughout campaigning, the government kept its restrictions on public gatherings and political meetings, and required all political literature to be approved by the SLORC prior to publication; however political parties defied the ruling.[14] Two days before the election, visas for 61 foreign journalists were unexpectedly issued to cover the vote.[8]


The National League for Democracy won 392 out of 492 seats that were in the end contested; the junta's party (NUP) came second in terms of vote share (21%) but fourth in seats (10).[8]
National League for Democracy7,930,84152.5392
National Unity Party3,312,12221.910
Shan Nationalities League for Democracy220,8351.523
United Nationals Democracy Party182,7521.21
Rakhine Democratic League157,2551.011
Mon National Democratic Front135,8740.95
National Democratic Party for Human Rights128,1290.84
Democracy Party63,3870.41
Party for National Democracy61,7910.43
Chin National League for Democracy51,2770.33
Union Paoh National Organisation43,2140.33
Arkan People's Democratic Front31,6200.30
Union Danu League for Democracy Party23,1450.11
Ta-ang National League for Democracy22,2230.12
Democratic Organisation for Kayah National Unity16,5800.12
Lahu National Development Party15,7940.11
Kachin State National Congress for Democracy13,9940.13
Mro (Khami) National Solidarity Organisation12,5780.11
Zomi National Congress12,3720.12
Kaya State Nationalities League for Democracy11,6640.12
Naga Hills Regional Progressive Party10,6120.12
Kaman National League for Democracy10,5960.11
Graduates and Old Students Democratic Association10,5080.11
United Nationalities League for Democracy8,9290.11
Shan State Kokango Democratic Party7,3920.11
Karen State National Organisation6,40101
Mara People's Party592,9583.91
Patriotic Old Comrades' League1
61 other parties0
Invalid/blank votes1,865,91812.3-
Total turnout15,112,524100492
Registered voters/turnout20,818,31349.8
Source: Nohlen et al.


Initially, the junta said it would honour the results of the Constituent Assembly election, but would not relinquish power until a new constitution had been drafted, which could take up to two years.[15] However later the government, surprised at the outcome, annulled the results and many opposition politicians went into exile, with some forming the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma.[16] Two months after the election, the SLORC issued Order 1/90, explaining it had legitimacy to rule as it was recognised by the United Nations and individual countries, as well as ensuring it would prevent the breakup of the Union.[17] It required all parties to recognise and accept the Order, and many opposition figures who refused were arrested.[17]


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